Many modern CPU architectures (including the popular Intel x86 architecture) include some form of ring protection, although the Windows NT operating system, like Unix, does not fully utilize this feature.
In 751, the Byzantine exarchate of Ravenna fell to the Lombards and Venice became the last Byzantine holdout in the north of Italy.
Email users may find the use of both a webmail client and a desktop client using the POP3 protocol presents some difficulties.
Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Strafgesetzbuch and the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch respectively.
The relationship between the Pope in Rome and the Exarch in Ravenna was a dynamic that could hurt or help the empire.
In Nazi Germany, there were plans to replace the BGB with a new codification that was planned to be entitled “Volksgesetzbuch” (“people’s code”), which was meant to reflect Nazi ideology better than the liberal spirit of the BGB, but these plans did not become reality.
POP supports simple download-and-delete requirements for access to remote mailboxes (termed maildrop in the POP RFC’s). Although most POP clients have an option to leave mail on server after download, e-mail clients using POP generally connect, retrieve all messages, store them on the user’s PC as new messages, delete them from the server, and then disconnect.
Joyce K. Reynolds is an American computer scientist.
Computer scientists can follow more practical applications of their knowledge, doing things such as software engineering. Computer scientists can also be found in the field of information technology consulting.
There is a relatively unclear line between management consulting and IT consulting.
An earlier wave of growth in the early 1980s was driven by demand for strategy and organization consultancies. The wave of growth in the 1990s was driven by both strategy and information technology advice. In the second half of the 1980s the big accounting firms entered the IT consulting segment. The then Big Eight, now Big Four, accounting firms (PricewaterhouseCoopers; KPMG; Ernst & Young; Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu) had always offered advice in addition to their traditional services, but from the late 1980s onwards these activities became increasingly important in relation to the maturing market of accounting and auditing.
Due to constraints, an audit seeks to provide only reasonable assurance that the statements are free from material error.
Materiality is a concept or convention within auditing and accounting relating to the importance/significance of an amount, transaction, or discrepancy.
The primary defining characteristic of AMD64 is the availability of 64-bit general-purpose processor registers (for example, rax and rbx), 64-bit integer arithmetic and logical operations, and 64-bit virtual addresses.
Although the Nazis won the greatest share of the popular vote in the two Reichstag general elections of 1932, they did not have a majority, so Hitler led a short-lived coalition government formed by the NSDAP and the German National People’s Party. Under pressure from politicians, industrialists, and the business community, President Paul von Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933.
Stephen (23–26 March 752), died of stroke three days after his election, and before his consecration as a bishop.
Allocating frequently used variables to registers can be critical to a program’s performance. This register allocation is either performed by a compiler, in the code generation phase, or manually, by an assembly language programmer.
Hindenburg played a supporting but key role in the Nazi Machtergreifung (Seizure of Power) in 1933.
Some assemblers have incorporated structured programming elements to encode execution flow.
Another name commonly used for the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 is the Brown Revolution, referring to the Nazi political colour adopted from the shirts that from 1924 served as the uniform of the paramilitary SA troopers known as Braunhemden (“brownshirts”).
Changes in the Anglican Ordinal since King Edward VI, and a fuller appreciation of the pre-Reformation ordinals, suggest that the correctness of the enduring dismissal of Anglican orders is questionable.
The structured program theorem provides the theoretical basis of structured programming.
Yellow is the color most commonly associated with liberalism.
McCabe’s characterization of the forbidden graphs for structured programming can be considered incomplete, at least if the Dijkstra’s D structures are considered the building blocks.:274-275
Few large stone buildings were constructed between the Constantinian basilicas of the 4th century and the 8th century, although many smaller ones were built during the 6th and 7th centuries.
Spain had a different political and cultural from its Western and Central European neighbors in several aspects during the early 16th century and these unique aspects affected the mentality and the reaction of the nation towards the Protestant Reformation. Spain, which had only recently managed to reconquer the Peninsula from the Moors in 1492, had been preoccupied with converting the Muslim and Jewish population of the newly conquered regions through the establishment of the Spanish Inquisition in 1478.
A number of anti-spam techniques mitigate the impact of spam.
Examples of these online tools are SpamCop and Network Abuse Clearinghouse.
While some spammers may use SpamCop’s reports for listwashing, others could retaliate.
Listwashing is the process through which individual entries in mailing lists are removed. These mailing lists typically contain email addresses or phone numbers of those that have not voluntarily subscribed.
In the late 1990s, the Federal Trade Commission grew concerned with fraud transpiring in email, and initiated a series of procedures on spam, fraud, and phishing. In 2004, FTC jurisdiction over spam was codified into law in the form of the CAN SPAM Act. Several other U.S.
The law required the FTC to report back to Congress within 24 months of the effectiveness of the act. No changes were recommended. It also requires the FTC to promulgate rules to shield consumers from unwanted mobile phone spam.
Another countermeasure is to use a service that provides a public phone number and publishes the SMS messages received at that number to a publicly accessible website. Google Voice can be used in this way, but with numbers and messages kept private.
Previously, customers of Gizmo5, a Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) service vendor acquired by Google, were allowed to forward calls to their Gizmo service which may be answered using a free computer application, or a web application, or SIP-based telephone hardware. Google discontinued Gizmo5 service on April 3, 2011.
As of July 20, 2009, Gizmo5 was the only SIP service that could be used with Google Voice directly (without requiring a U.S.
Google Voice provides no direct phone support contact number. However, users can access the Google Voice Help Center FAQ, and use the free Google Groups official Google Voice product forum for support.
Google Groups was blocked in Turkey since April 10, 2008 by the order of a court in Turkey. According to The Guardian, the court banned Google Groups following a libel complaint by Adnan Oktar against the service.
In 1992, it relaunched its features section as G2, a tabloid-format supplement. This innovation was widely copied by the other “quality” broadsheets, and ultimately led to the rise of “compact” papers and The Guardian’s move to the Berliner format. In 1993 the paper declined to participate in the broadsheet price war started by Rupert Murdoch’s The Times.
The Guardian senior news writer Esther Addley interviewing Ecuadorian Foreign Minister Ricardo Patiño for this article relating to Julian Assange (August 2014)
Following his father’s death, when he was 21, Murdoch returned from Oxford to take charge of the family business News Limited, which had been established in 1923.
In 1964, News Limited made its next important advance when it established The Australian, Australia’s first national daily newspaper, based initially in Canberra and later in Sydney.
The Australian is published by News Corp Australia, an asset of News Corp, which also owns the sole dailies in Brisbane, Adelaide, Hobart and Darwin and the most popular metropolitan dailies in Sydney and Melbourne. News Corp’s Chairman and Founder is Rupert Murdoch.
The Museum of Contemporary Art was opened in 1991 and occupies an Art Deco building in Circular Quay.
The establishment of the MCA was mandated in the will of Australian expatriate artist John Power (1881–1943), who bequeathed his personal fortune to the University of Sydney with the express purpose of informing and educating Australians in the contemporary visual arts.
The SRC and Union are both governed by student representatives, who are elected by students each year. Elections for the USU board of directors occur in first semester; elections for the SRC President, and for members of the Students’ Representative Council itself, occur in second semester, along with a separate election for the editorial board of the student newspaper Honi Soit, which is published by the SRC.
These poets have won the prize; all have been published by
He did his National Service in the Coldstream Guards, in which he was commissioned in 1955, promoted Lieutenant in 1956, and served in the British Army of the Rhine.
The meaning of lieutenant differs in different military formations (see comparative military ranks), but is often subdivided into senior (first lieutenant) and junior (second lieutenant) ranks.
This article is a list of various states’ armed forces ranking designations.
The obvious benefit to a country in maintaining armed forces is in providing protection from foreign threats and from internal conflict. In recent decades armed forces personnel have also been used as emergency civil support roles in post-disaster situations. On the other hand, they may also harm a society by engaging in counter-productive (or merely unsuccessful) warfare. Expenditure on science and technology to develop weapons and systems sometimes produces side benefits, although some claim that greater benefits could come from targeting the money directly.
Professor Richard P. Rumelt described strategy as a type of problem solving in 2011. He wrote that good strategy has an underlying structure he called a kernel. The kernel has three parts: 1) A diagnosis that defines or explains the nature of the challenge; 2) A guiding policy for dealing with the challenge; and 3) Coherent actions designed to carry out the guiding policy. President
Mintzberg is cited in Chamberlain’s Theory of Strategy as providing one of the four main foundations on which the theory is based.
As explained above, Factor 1 divides any entity’s environment into three categories. In his Factor 4 discussion, Chamberlain divides the ways in which each of those environmental areas can be influenced, into two types. The first type, the rational approach, consists of only considering standard economic forces, as described for example by Adam Smith, Joseph Schumpeter and Michael Porter. The second type of influence technique, the social approach, considers combinations of economic and psychological forces, including for example those described by
In August 1714, Louis XIV had made a will stipulating that the nation was to be governed by a Regency Council made up of fourteen members until the new king reached the age of majority. Philippe, Duke of Orléans, nephew of Louis XIV, was named president of the council, but all decisions were to be made by majority vote. The composition of the council, which included Louis XIV’s legitimised sons the Duke of Maine and Count of Toulouse and various members of Louis XIV’s administration, meant that the Duke of Orléans would often be outvoted.
Mobile devices, such as cell phones and tablet computers, commonly have the ability to receive email.
The Surface Pro contains similar hardware to a standard laptop. The device does not come equipped with Office 2013. It contains an Intel Core i5 processor, USB 3.0 port, Windows 8 Pro (free update to Windows 8.1 Pro available) and allows the user to run traditional desktop applications. Two successors has been released since the release of the first device, Surface Pro 2 and Surface Pro 3.
Windows 8 introduces a new style of application, Windows Store apps.
The company initially faced criticism for incorrectly banning PEGI “18”-rated content from Windows Store in Europe, as critics noted that a number of “18”-rated games were rated “Mature” by ESRB (making the rule stricter than intended).
PEGI is used in 31 European countries, French-speaking areas of Canada (especially Quebec), and Israel.
The Canadian Space Agency operates a highly active space program, conducting deep-space, planetary, and aviation research, and developing rockets and satellites.
With the launch of Alouette 1 in September 1962 Canada became the third country to put an artificial satellite into space.
Alouette 1 was launched by NASA from the Pacific Missile Range at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, USA at 06:05 UTC on September 29, 1962, into orbit around the earth.
The Western Range (WR) is the space launch range that supports the major launch head at Vandenberg Air Force Base.:pg 15 Managed by the 30th Space Wing,:pg 25 the WR extends from the West Coast of the United States to 90 degrees East longitude in the Indian Ocean:pg 27 where it meets the Eastern Range:pg 10 Operations involve military, government, and commercial interests.
Major spaceports often include more than one launch complex, which can be rocket launch sites adapted for different types of launch vehicles.
Sounding rockets are normally used for brief, inexpensive space and microgravity experiments.
The term sounding rocket is sometimes colloquially used to refer to the firework rockets used during the Diwali festival in India.
Diwali marks a major shopping period in India. In terms of consumer purchases and economic activity, Diwali is the equivalent of Christmas in the west.
A number of nations have issued commemorative stamps at Christmastide.
The appearance of commemorative postage stamps caused a backlash among some stamp collectors, in the early years of stamp collecting who balked at the prospect of laying out ever-larger sums to acquire the stamps of the world, so they formed the Society for the Suppression of Speculative Stamps in 1895 to blacklist what they deemed to be excessive stamps.
The Society for the Suppression of Speculative Stamps (S.S.S.S.) was a short-lived and ill-fated attempt by philatelists before 1900 to suppress the issue of unnecessary stamps designed mainly for sale to collectors.
Philately uses a number of tools, including stamp tongs (a specialized form of tweezers) to safely handle the stamps, a strong magnifying glass and a perforation gauge (odontometer) to measure the perforation gauge of the stamp.
Stamp tongs are tweezers used to handle postage stamps. They are used by stamp collectors and philatelists, because they are a reliable way to hold and move stamps without damaging or getting skin oils on them.
The word “philately” is the English version of the French word “philatélie”, coined by Georges Herpin in 1864. Herpin stated that stamps had been collected and studied for the previous six or seven years and a better name was required for the new hobby than timbromanie, which was disliked. He took the Greek root word φιλ(ο)- phil(o)-, meaning “an attraction or affinity for something”, and ἀτέλεια ateleia, meaning “exempt from duties and taxes” to form “philatelie”. The introduction of postage stamps meant that the receipt of letters was now free of charge, whereas before stamps it was normal for postal charges to be paid by the recipient of a letter.
Ancient Greek was written in the Greek alphabet, with some variation among dialects.
Greek symbols are traditionally used as names in mathematics, physics and other sciences.
Many mathematical objects, such as sets of numbers and functions, exhibit internal structure as a consequence of operations or relations that are defined on the set.
As an example, the factorial function is defined on the nonnegative integers and produces a nonnegative integer.
In physics, the Toda oscillator is a special kind of nonlinear oscillator.
The true beginning of atomic physics is marked by the discovery of spectral lines and attempts to describe the phenomenon, most notably by Joseph von Fraunhofer.
Thus in 1814, Fraunhofer invented the spectroscope.
Each message has exactly one header, which is structured into fields.
In information technology, header refers to supplemental data placed at the beginning of a block of data being stored or transmitted.
Database management systems emerged in the 1960s to address the problem of storing and retrieving large amounts of data accurately and quickly. One of the earliest such systems was IBM’s Information Management System (IMS), which is still widely deployed more than 40 years later. IMS stores data hierarchically, but in the 1970s
A dark (or gray) suit, white shirt, and a “sincere” tie was the public uniform for IBM employees for most of the 20th century. During IBM’s management transformation in the 1990s, CEO
The Hursley estate was bought by William Heathcote, MP from the daughters of Richard Cromwell.
Heathcote was a successful merchant who purchased the Hursley estate in 1718.
The buildings had become ruinous by the 16th century, when Edward Vl granted the manor and park at Hursley to Sir Philip Hoby.
On a second trip to France, Hoby and Holbein painted the Princess Margaret of France, and perhaps Mary of Bourbon, then they arrived at Joinville in France at the end of August 1538.
Portuguese, the official language of Brazil, is spoken and used by the entire population.
Portuguese is the language of the majority of people in Brazil, Portugal, and São Tomé and Príncipe (95%). Portuguese is quickly becoming the predominant native language of Angola. According to figures from 1983, roughly 70%, perhaps more, of Angolans speak Portuguese natively, and 80% profess fluency in Portuguese. Although only just over 10 percent of the population are native speakers of Portuguese in Mozambique, the language is spoken by about 50.4 percent there according to the 2007 census. It is also spoken by 11.5 percent of the population in Guinea-Bissau. No data is available for Cape Verde, but almost all the population is bilingual, and the monolingual population speaks Cape Verdean Creole.
The Sotavento Creoles are spoken in the Sotavento Islands.
There are four main islands: Brava, Fogo and Santiago are rocky and volcanic agricultural islands, with the longest histories of human habitation and densest populations in the Cape Verdes.
Santiago is the largest island of Cape Verde, with an area of 991 km². The island is mountainous, although slightly flatter in the southeast. The wetter climate of the interior and the eastern coast contrasts with the dryer one in the south/southwest coast. Praia, located in the southeast coast, is the largest city of the island, and also the largest city and capital of the country.
Being the nation´s capital as well as the economic hub, Praia is the most economically viable city in the Cabo Verde archipelago. About one third (1/3) of the city’s population lives below the poverty line today (2014).
There is not enough evidence to assert what conditions gave rise to the first cities.
Scientific evidence consists of observations and experimental results that serve to support, refute, or modify a scientific hypothesis or theory, when collected and interpreted in accordance with the scientific method.
In statistical hypothesis testing, two hypotheses are compared. These are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.
The directionality of hypotheses is not always obvious. The explicit null hypothesis of Fisher’s Lady tasting tea example was that the Lady had no such ability, which led to a symmetric probability distribution.
In the design of experiments in statistics, the lady tasting tea is a famous randomized experiment devised by
This example is attributed to Harold Hotelling. It conveys some of the flavor of those aspects of the subject that involve combinatorial designs.
In the United States, Harold Hotelling is known for his leadership of the statistics profession, in particular for his vision of a statistics department at a university, which convinced many universities to start statistics departments. Hotelling was known for his leadership of departments at Columbia University and the University of North Carolina.
Several buildings on the Morningside Heights campus are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
A few years later in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.S.
The United States has 59 protected areas,known as national parks, which are operated by the National Park Service, an agency of the Department of the Interior.
Protected areas are essential for biodiversity conservation, often providing habitat and protection from hunting for threatened and endangered species.
Habitat destruction has played a key role in extinctions, especially related to tropical forest destruction. Factors contributing to habitat loss are: overconsumption, overpopulation, land use change, deforestation, pollution (air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination) and global warming or climate change.
The popular media and the public often confuse global warming with ozone depletion, i.e., the destruction of stratospheric ozone (e.g., the ozone layer) by chlorofluorocarbons. Although there are a few areas of linkage, the relationship between the two is not strong.
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was used in fire extinguishers and glass “anti-fire grenades” from the late nineteenth century until around the end of World War II.
One specialty use of carbon tetrachloride was in stamp collecting, to reveal watermarks on postage stamps without damaging them.
This embossing is transferred to the pulp fibres, compressing and reducing their thickness in that area.
Following the release of Windows Phone, Microsoft underwent a gradual rebranding of its product range throughout 2011 and 2012—the corporation’s logos, products, services, and websites adopted the principles and concepts of the Metro design language. Microsoft previewed Windows 8, an operating system designed to power both personal computers and tablet computers, in Taipei in June 2011. A developer preview was released on September 13, and was replaced by a consumer preview on February 29, 2012. On May 31, 2012, the preview version was released.
In June 2014, state broadcaster China Central Television (CCTV) broadcast a news story further characterizing Windows 8 as a threat to national security.
CCTV produces its own news broadcasts three times a day and is the country’s most powerful and prolific television program producer. Its thirty-minute evening news, Xinwen Lianbo (“CCTV Network News” or “CCTV Tonight”, Chinese:新闻联播), goes on air daily at 7:00 pm Beijing time.
On December 27, 2007, Xinwen Lianbo aired a report about the wide and easy availability of explicit content on the internet. The report appealed to juristic institutions and government to hurry to make relevant legislation in order to purify the internet environment. In the report, a young student described a pop-up advertisement she saw as being “very erotic very violent”. After the airing of the report, many parodies were posted by internet users ridiculing the comment and CCTV’s credibility in part. The incident also questioned the reliability of Xinwen Lianbo, noting the unlikelihood of a web page being both violent and erotic at the same time (even though such pages do exist), and the age of the student interviewed.
A variation on the pop-up window is the pop-under advertisement, which opens a new browser window hidden under the active window.
An active window is the currently focused window in the current window manager or explorer.
Any window can be split into the window decoration and the actual content, although some systems purposely eschew window decoration as a form of minimalism.
In computing, minimalism refers to the application of minimalist philosophies and principles in hardware and software design and usage.
Minimal art is also inspired in part by the paintings of Barnett Newman, Ad Reinhardt, Josef Albers, and the works of artists as diverse as Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, Giorgio Morandi, and others.
Newman is generally classified as an abstract expressionist on account of his working in New York City in the 1950s, associating with other artists of the group and developing an abstract style which owed little or nothing to European art.
The style was widespread from the 1940s until the early 1960s, and is closely associated with abstract expressionism (some critics have used the terms action painting and abstract expressionism interchangeably).
The style was widespread from the 1940s until the early 1960s, and is closely associated with abstract expressionism (some critics have used the terms “action painting” and “abstract expressionism” interchangeably).
During the late 1940s Jackson Pollock’s radical approach to painting revolutionized the potential for all Contemporary art that followed him.
Contemporary art is art produced at the present period in time. Contemporary art includes, and develops from, Postmodern art, which is itself a successor to Modern art. In vernacular English, “modern” and “contemporary” are synonyms, resulting in some conflation of the terms “modern art” and “contemporary art” by non-specialists.
Influences upon these movements were varied: from exposure to Eastern decorative arts, particularly Japanese printmaking, to the coloristic innovations of
Japanese artists who had a great influence included Utamaro and Hokusai.
Both Hokusai’s choice of nom d’artiste and frequent depiction of
Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (富嶽三十六景, Fugaku Sanjūrokkei?) is an ukiyo-e series of large, color woodblock prints by the Japanese artist Katsushika Hokusai (1760–1849).
Macke’s meeting with Robert Delaunay in Paris in 1912 was to be a sort of revelation for him.
After the war, in 1921, they returned to Paris. Delaunay continued to work in a mostly abstract style. During the 1937 World Fair in Paris, Delaunay participated in the design of the railway and air travel pavilions.
Polish engineers from Warsaw won a gold medal for the new Polish locomotive Pm36-1 PKP class Pm36
Their local rivals, Polonia Warsaw, have significantly fewer supporters, yet they managed to win Ekstraklasa Championship in 2000.
In the 1999/2000 season, Polonia were not considered challengers for the title. At the end of the autumn round, the Black Shirts were for the first time in club’s history leading the league. That team had two managers – Jerzy Engel (who later became the coach of the Polish national team, which qualified for the World Cup 2002) and Dariusz Wdowczyk (former Polish international).
1Argentina were awarded a spot in the competition because Brazil had won both the 2002 FIFA World Cup and the 2004 Copa América.
The 2004 Copa América was the 41st edition of the Copa América, the South-American championship for international association football teams.
The newly independent nations began a process of Balkanization, with several civil and international wars.
In 2011, Greenpeace released a report rating the top ten big brands in cloud computing on their sources of electricity for their data centers.
In continuity of the successful campaign to reach the Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, in 2012 and 2013 protests with “Save the Arctic” banners were started.
It was concluded in Madrid and opened for signature on October 4, 1991 and entered into force on January 14, 1998.
After their adoption, treaties as well as their amendments may have to follow the official legal procedures of the United Nations, as applied by the Office of Legal Affairs, including signature, ratification, and entry into force.
The United Nations Office of Legal Affairs is a United Nations agency, established in 1946, that performs several key functions in the area of international law.
The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly (the main deliberative assembly); the Security Council (for deciding certain resolutions for peace and security); the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) (for promoting international economic and social co-operation and development); the Secretariat (for providing studies, information, and facilities needed by the UN); the International Court of Justice (the primary judicial organ); and the United Nations Trusteeship Council (inactive since 1994).
The Economic and Social Council Chamber in the United Nations Conference Building was a gift from Sweden.
Due to the significance of the organization, proposals and offers to relocate the Headquarters buildings have occasionally been discussed. Common complaints about its current location include diplomats who struggle to obtain U.S. visas and local residents complaining about inconveniences each time the roads are sealed due to visiting dignitaries. A telephone poll in 2001 found that 67% of callers were in favor of the UN moving out of the country. Countries critical of the United States, such as Iran, are especially vocal in questioning the current location of the buildings in U.S.
In 1219–21 the Khwarezmian Empire suffered a devastating invasion by Genghis Khan’s Mongol army.
He was a tengrist.
For 40 days after birth, the newborn baby and his/her mother are required to stay in the home. On the fortieth day, a special ceremony is done that is called Kırklama or Kırk çıkarma. On that day, baby is taken in a special bath called Kırk banyosu (bath of 40). Forty stones which were collected from 40 places are dropped into the water with a gold coin to give the baby a nice fortune. This water is taken 40 times and then dropped again onto the water
In native Turkic words, the sounds , , and are in complementary distribution with , , and ; the former set occurs adjacent to front vowels and the latter adjacent to back vowels.
In linguistics, complementary distribution, as distinct from contrastive distribution and free variation, is the relationship between two different elements of the same kind, where one element is found in one set of environments and the other element is found in a non-intersecting (i.e.
A morphophoneme is a theoretical unit at a deeper level of abstraction than traditional phonemes, and is taken to be a unit from which morphemes are built up.
In linguistics, a morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
While some theories on linguistics focus on the different varieties that language produces, among different sections of society, others focus on the universal properties that are common to all human languages.
The theory of Universal Grammar proposes that if human beings are brought up under normal conditions (not conditions of extreme sensory deprivation), then they will always develop language with a certain property X (e.g., distinguishing nouns from verbs, or distinguishing function words from lexical words).
Function words belong to the closed class of words in grammar in that it is very uncommon to have new function words created in the course of speech, whereas in the open class of words (that is, nouns, verbs, adjectives, or adverbs) new words may be added readily (such as slang words, technical terms, and adoptions and adaptations of foreign words).
The formal study of grammar is an important part of education for children from a young age through advanced learning, though the rules taught in schools are not a “grammar” in the sense most linguists use the term, particularly as they are often prescriptive rather than descriptive.
In the study of language, description, or descriptive linguistics, is the work of objectively analyzing and describing how language is spoken (or how it was spoken in the past) by a group of people in a speech community.
A discourse is a way of speaking that emerges within a certain social setting and is based on a certain subject matter. A particular discourse becomes a language variety when it is used in this way for a particular purpose, and is referred to as a register. There may be certain lexical additions (new words) that are brought into play because of the expertise of the community of people within a certain domain of specialisation.
Linguistic theories generally regard human languages as consisting of two parts: a lexicon, essentially a catalogue of a language’s words (its wordstock); and a grammar, a system of rules which allow for the combination of those words into meaningful sentences.
Standard Chinese has official status as the standard spoken form of the Chinese language in the People’s Republic of China (PRC), the Republic of China (ROC) and the Republic of Singapore.
Racial and religious harmony is regarded by the government as a crucial part of Singapore’s success, and played a part in building a Singaporean identity. Singapore has a reputation as a nanny state. The national flower of Singapore is the Vanda ‘Miss Joaquim’ named in memory of a Singapore-born Armenian woman, who discovered the flower in her garden at Tanjong Pagar in 1893. Many national symbols such as the Coat of arms of Singapore and the Lion head symbol of Singapore make use of the lion, as Singapore is known as the ‘Lion City’.
The Armenian Genocide caused widespread emigration that led to the settlement of Armenians in various countries in the world. Armenians kept to their traditions and certain diasporans rose to fame with their music. In the post-Genocide Armenian community of the United States, the so-called “kef” style Armenian dance music, using Armenian and Middle Eastern folk instruments (often electrified/amplified) and some western instruments, was popular. This style preserved the folk songs and dances of Western Armenia, and many artists also played the contemporary popular songs of Turkey and other Middle Eastern countries from which the Armenians emigrated.
Bitlis and Muş were formerly included in the Eyalet of Erzurum. In 1875 they were detached and made a separate vilayet.
Bitlis was formed as an administrative district in the 17th Century.
Microsoft is an outspoken opponent of the cap on H1B visas, which allow companies in the U.S.
In 2002, the US government began an investigation into Sun Microsystems’ hiring practices after an ex-employee, Guy Santiglia, filed complaints with the
The first European to visit the valley was José Francisco Ortega in 1769.
Sergeant Ortega was on Gaspar de Portolà’s 2nd land expedition to Alta California in 1769.
A 9 ft (2.7 m) statue in Pacifica, California was sculpted by the Catalan sculptor Josep Maria Subirachs and his associate, Francesc Carulla.
The defeat of the Republic of Spain in the Spanish Civil War brought fascist Francisco Franco to power as dictator.
Articles 24 and 26 of the 1931 constitution had banned the Jesuits.
Dr Frances Lannon FRHistS (born 22 December 1945) is a British academic and educator.
The promotion of research proceeds through all the Society’s lectures and conferences, and also very directly through small grants to postgraduate researchers and through the Society’s various publications, whether in book form, as with the Monographic series Studies in History, the Society’s own annual Transactions, and the Camden Series of editions and translations of texts, or digitally, as in the Society-sponsored Bibliography of British and Irish History.
The connection among books belonging to such a series can be by discipline, focus, approach, type of work, or geographic location. Examples of such series include “Antwerp Working Papers in Linguistics”; “Early English Manuscripts in Facsimile” (Rosenkilde & Bagger, Copenhagen); Garland reference library; “Canterbury Tales Project” (see The Canterbury Tales); Early English Text Society.
Famous members of the society when it was formed in 1864 include Furnivall himself, Alfred Tennyson (poet laureate), Warren de la Rue (inventor of the lightbulb), Richard Chenevix Trench (Irish ecclesiastic), Stephen Austin (a Hertford-based printer), Edith Coleridge (granddaughter of Samuel Taylor Coleridge), and others.
Poets laureate of Somalia include: hadraawi.
While a payment to employ a trade mark licence is a royalty, it is accompanied by a “guided usage manual”, the use of which may be audited from time to time. However, this becomes a supervisory task when the mark is used in a franchise agreement for the sale of goods or services carrying the reputation of the mark.
Various tangibles and intangibles such as national or international advertising, training and other support services are commonly made available by the franchisor.
The on-the-job training method takes place in a normal working situation, using the actual tools, equipment, documents or materials that trainees will use when fully trained.
On-the-job training (OTJ) is a form of training taking place in a normal working situation.
Some commentators use a similar term for workplace learning to improve performance: “training and development”.
In Organizational development, performance improvement is organizational change in which the managers and governing body of an organization put into place and manage a program which measures the current level of performance of the organization and then generates ideas for modifying organizational behavior and infrastructure which are put into place to achieve higher output.
Underlying Organization Development are humanistic values.
The basic training of the humanist was to speak well and write (typically, in the form of a letter). One of Petrarch’s followers, Coluccio Salutati (1331–1406) was made chancellor of Florence, “whose interests he defended with his literary skill.
He also brought the Byzantine scholar Manuel Chrysoloras to Florence in 1397 to teach one of the first courses in Greek since the end of the Roman Empire.
Chrysoloras arrived in the winter of 1397, an event remembered by one his most famous pupils, the humanist scholar Leonardo Bruni, as a great new opportunity: there were many teachers of law, but no one had studied Greek in Italy for 700 years.
Leonardo Bruni was born in Arezzo, Tuscany circa 1370.
In the 3rd to 4th century, Arezzo became an episcopal seat: it is one of the few cities whose succession of bishops are known by name without interruption to the present day, in part because they were the feudal lords of the city in the Middle Ages.
The political structure of Western Europe changed with the end of the united Roman Empire. Although the movements of peoples during this period are usually described as “invasions”, they were not just military expeditions but migrations of entire peoples into the empire. Such movements were aided by the refusal of the western Roman elites to support the army or pay the taxes that would have allowed the military to suppress the migration. The emperors of the 5th century were often controlled by military strongmen such as Stilicho (d.
After the death of the Western Emperor Valentinian II in 392, Stilicho helped raise the army that Theodosius would lead to victory at the Battle of the Frigidus, and was one of the Eastern leaders in that battle.
When the Eastern Emperor Theodosius heard the news of Valentinian’s death, Arbogast, who was the magister militum and de facto ruler of Western Empire, informed him that the young emperor had committed suicide.
Standard and Poor’s and Moody’s have both given a AAA rating to Microsoft, whose assets were valued at $41 billion as compared to only $8.5 billion in unsecured debt.
The global financial crisis of the late 2000s brought increased scrutiny to credit rating agencies’ assessments of complex structured finance securities.
Ratings play an important role in structured finance for instruments that are meant to be sold to investors. Many mutual funds, governments, and private investors only buy instruments that have been rated by a known agency, like Moody’s or Standard & Poor’s.
Standard & Poor’s Governance Services analysts issue a monthly GAMMA Newsletter containing comments and views on corporate governance-related matters in emerging markets (BRIC and beyond).
Corporate governance principles and codes have been developed in different countries and issued from stock exchanges, corporations, institutional investors, or associations (institutes) of directors and managers with the support of governments and international organizations. As a rule, compliance with these governance recommendations is not mandated by law, although the codes linked to stock exchange listing requirements may have a coercive effect.
In the 19th century, exchanges were opened to trade forward contracts on commodities.
Monetarists emphasize a steady growth rate of money and use monetary policy to control inflation by increasing interest rates and slowing the rise in the money supply.
Shoe leather cost refers to the cost of time and effort (more specifically the opportunity cost of time and energy) that people spend trying to counter-act the effects of inflation, such as holding less cash and having to make additional trips to the bank. The term comes from the fact that more walking is required (historically, although the rise of the Internet has reduced it) to go to the bank and get cash and spend it, thus wearing out shoes more quickly. A significant cost of reducing money holdings is the additional time and convenience that must be sacrificed to keep less money on hand than would be required if there were less or no inflation.
Since cheques include significant personal information (name, account number, signature and in some countries driver’s license number, the address and/or phone number of the account holder), they can be used for fraud, specifically identity theft.
An October 2010 article entitled “Cyber Crime Made Easy” explained the level to which hackers are using malicious software. As one security specialist named Gunter Ollmann said, “Interested in credit card theft? There’s an app for that.” This statement summed up the ease with which these hackers are accessing all kinds of information online.
The Transport board issues driving licences which are valid as identity documents in Sweden.
The Tanzania Revenue Authority (TRA) is a government agency of Tanzania, charged with the responsibility of managing the assessment, collection and accounting of all central government revenue.
As a historically nomadic and then semi-nomadic people, the Maasai have traditionally relied on local, readily available materials and indigenous technology to construct their housing.
In 1920, nomadic pastoral tribes represented over a quarter of Iran’s population. Tribal pastures were nationalized during the 1960s.
According to the Iranian Constitution, the government is required to provide every citizen of the country with access to social security that covers retirement, unemployment, old age, disability, accidents, calamities, health and medical treatment and care services.
The draft constitution published by the provisional government of Mehdi Bazargan in June 1979 was modeled on the 1958 constitution of the French Fifth Republic.
Property often is protected by the criminal law. Trespassing is unlawful entry onto the real property of another.
Quicquid plantatur solo, solo cedit (Latin, “whatever is affixed to the soil belongs to the soil”) is a Legal Latin principle related to fixtures.
A number of Latin terms are used in legal terminology and legal maxims.
In later times, less value has been attached to the maxims of the law, as the development of civilization and the increasing complexity of business relations have shown the necessity of qualifying the propositions which they enunciate.
Towards the end of the Neolithic period, various Chalcolithic civilizations began to rise in various “cradles” from around 3300 BCE.
Examples of Chalcolithic cultures in Europe include Vila Nova de São Pedro and Los Millares on the Iberian Peninsula. Pottery of the Beaker people has been found at both sites, dating to several centuries after copper-working began there.
As part of the “Get the Facts” campaign, Microsoft highlighted the .NET trading platform that it had developed in partnership with Accenture for the London Stock Exchange, claiming that it provided “five nines” reliability.
High availability system design approach and associated service implementation that ensures a prearranged level of operational performance will be met during a contractual measurement period.
If the broader topic of product development “blends the perspective of marketing, design, and manufacturing into a single approach to product development,” then design is the act of taking the marketing information and creating the design of the product to be manufactured.
Economical analysis, benchmarking of competitive products and modeling and prototyping are also important activities during the front-end activities. The outcomes of FFE are the:
Morphological analysis is another form of a decision matrix employing a multi-dimensional configuration space linked by way of logical relationships.
General morphology was developed by Fritz Zwicky, the Bulgarian-born, Swiss-national astrophysicist based at the California Institute of Technology.
In 1904, at the age of six, Fritz was sent to his grandparents in Glarus, Switzerland, “the Zwicky’s ancestral Swiss canton, to study commerce.” His interests shifted to math and physics and he received an advanced education in mathematics and experimental physics at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, located in Zürich, Switzerland.
Weltklasse Zürich, sometimes referred to as the one day Olympics, is one of prestigious one day athletics meet held annually at the Letzigrund Stadium.
False start: An athlete, after assuming a final set position, may not commence his starting motion until after receiving the report of the gun, or approved starting apparatus.
In American football and Canadian football, a false start is movement by an offensive player (other than the center) after he has taken a set position.
Canadian football has mostly been contained to Canada, with the United States being the only other country to have hosted a high-level Canadian football game. The CFL’s controversial “South Division” as it would come to be officially known attempted to put CFL teams in the United States playing under Canadian rules between 1992 and 1995.
Memphis had been a prime target for either expansion or relocation. Besides its location near Shreveport and San Antonio, Fred Smith’s ownership group, which had narrowly missed out on an NFL team, was the richest the league had ever had. The Mad Dogs played in the Liberty Bowl, which had to be heavily reconfigured to accommodate the Canadian game.
The city finally lured an NFL team to the stadium in 1997, when the Houston Oilers announced that they would play two seasons in Memphis as the Tennessee Oilers before their new stadium in Nashville was completed in time for the 1999 season.
The Titans have posted an impressive record at LP Field since moving there in 1999, including winning their first 16 games before losing to the Baltimore Ravens on November 12, 2000.
In November 2004 the team introduced an alternate uniform design featuring black jerseys and solid black pants with black socks. The all-black uniform was first worn for a home game against the Cleveland Browns, entitled “Pitch Black” night, that resulted in a Ravens win.
The team also produces Cleveland Browns Daily, a year-round daily radio show hosted by Nathan Zegura, Michael Reghi, and Matt Wilhelm which airs on WKNR from 1–3 p.m.
Reghi began his career in 1980, when he was hired by WLIO in Lima, Ohio as a sports anchor/reporter. He then briefly went on to (then) WDHO-TV 24 in Toledo, Ohio as a sports anchor (weekends) and reporter, and from 1983-1986 worked at Cleveland’s WEWS-TV 5 as the weekend sports anchor (working under Cleveland sports media legends Gib Shanley and Nev Chandler).
Toledo linked with Toledo, Spain as sister cities in 1931, creating the first Sister Cities relationship in North America.
The first city in North America to establish a sister-city relationship was Toledo, Ohio, which sistered with Toledo, Spain, in 1931.
The top ten largest North American metropolitan areas by population as of 2013, based on national census numbers from the United States of America, and census estimates from Canada and Mexico.
Megacity is a general term for metropolitan areas that usually have a total population in excess of ten million people.
In 1800, only 3% of the world’s population lived in cities, a figure that rose to 47% by the end of the twentieth century.
Human population control is the practice of intervening to alter the rate of population growth. Historically, human population control has been implemented by limiting a region’s birth rate, by voluntary contraception or by government mandate.
When the Olympian shakes the aegis, Mount Ida is wrapped in clouds, the thunder rolls and men are struck down with fear.
From the Anatolian Mount Ida, Zeus was said to have abducted Ganymede to Olympus.
Τhe intense diversity of the landscape, the varying orientation of the slopes and their position in relation to the sea affect locally Olympus’ climate and so a local microclimate prevails, combined with the geological background and the soil favor the growth of particular vegetation types and biotopes.
The area in a developed industrial park may vary greatly from a wooded park nearby, as natural flora in parks absorb light and heat in leaves that a building roof or parking lot just radiates back into the air.
The “task grouping” feature introduced in Windows XP showing both grouped and individual items
Software applications for most personal computers include, but are not limited to, word processing, spreadsheets, databases, Web browsers and e-mail clients, digital media playback, games and myriad personal productivity and special-purpose software applications.
In purchasing parts at national, discount auto parts retailers (e.g., NAPA, Auto Zone, Halfords, Advance Auto Parts, Pep Boys, Motrio, Autobacs, etc.), many parts will have OEM prominently displayed but followed by a qualifier such as “meets OEM standards”.
Digital media has also allowed individuals to be much more active in content creation. Anyone with access to computers and the Internet can participate in social media and contribute their own writing, art, videos, photography and commentary to the Internet, as well as conduct business online.
Using nanotechnology as an example, Runge et al. (2013) studied tweets from Twitter and found that some 41% of the discourse about nanotechnology focused on its negative impacts, suggesting that a portion of the public may be concerned with how various forms of nanotechnology are used in the future.
In April 2013, the Associated Press’ Twitter account was briefly hacked into, sending out a message that US president Barack Obama had been injured in an attack on the White House.
Original equipment manufacturer (OEM) is a term used when one company makes a part or subsystem that is used in another company’s end product. The term is used in several ways, each of which is clear within a context.
Most research in the field of WSD is performed by using WordNet as a reference sense inventory for English.
The Open Multilingual WordNet provides access to open licensed wordnets in a variety of languages, all linked to the Princeton Wordnet of English (PWN).
The Free Software Foundation has a related but distinct criteria for evaluating whether or not a license qualifies software as free software.
Obama became the new front runner in New Hampshire when his poll numbers skyrocketed after his victory in Iowa. The Clinton campaign was struggling after a bad loss in Iowa and no strategy beyond the early primaries and caucuses. According to The Vancouver Sun, “Campaign strategists had mapped a victory scenario that envisioned the former first lady wrapping up the Democratic presidential nomination by Super Tuesday on Feb.
In practice, for software to be distributed as free software, the source code, a human-readable form of the program from which an executable form is produced, must be accessible to the recipient along with a document granting the same rights to free software under which it was published.
The paper moved to Granville Square in 1997.
Generally speaking, software is open source if the source code is free to use, distribute, modify and study, and proprietary if the source code is kept secret, or is privately owned and restricted. The first software license to be published and to explicitly grant these freedoms was the GNU General Public License in 1989.
In May 2005, Daniel Wallace
As of 2011, Vancouver is the most densely populated city in Canada. Urban planning in Vancouver is characterized by high-rise residential and mixed-use development in urban centres, as an alternative to sprawl. As part of the larger Metro Vancouver region, it is influenced by the policy direction of livability as illustrated in the Livable Region Strategic Plan.
The GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) is a free software license published by the Free Software Foundation (FSF).
Land for expansion of suburban housing is usually purchased from farmers and/or ranchers. In the United States the seller may avoid tax on profit by using a tax break exempting like-kind exchanges from capital gains tax; proceeds from the sale are used to purchase cheap agricultural land elsewhere and the transaction is treated as a “swap” or trade of like assets and no tax is due.
The cover of the Metro-Land guide published in 1921, promoting a suburban lifestyle.
Examples of licenses that provoked debate were the 1.x series of the Apple Public Source License, which were accepted by the Open Source Initiative but not by the Free Software Foundation or Debian and the RealNetworks Public Source License, which was accepted by Open Source Initiative and Free Software Foundation but not by Debian.
The unrecognized gain or unrecognized loss from a like-kind exchange is preserved in the new property received in the exchange.
The first version of the Apple Public Source License was approved by the Open Source Initiative (OSI). Version 2.0, released July 29, 2003, is also approved as a free software license by the Free Software Foundation (FSF) which finds it acceptable for developers to work on projects that are already covered by this license.
In 2012, under the leadership of OSI director Simon Phipps, the OSI began transitioning towards a membership-based governance structure.
An investor buys a strip mall (a commercial property) for $200,000 (his cost basis).
The other variety of strip mall in the U.S. is usually anchored on one end by a big box retailer, such as Wal-Mart, Kohl’s or Target, and/or by a large supermarket on the other.
In 1972 the British-American Tobacco Company’s US retail division, BATUS Inc., bought a controlling interest in Kohl’s Corporation, which at the time operated 50 grocery stores, six department stores, three drug stores and three liquor stores. The Kohl family, led by Allen and Herb Kohl, continued to manage the company.